In his research, Kennedy discovered there was a reference to music every twelfth line of Plato's manuscripts. He also knew that ancient Greek music was based on a twelve-note scale, instead of the eight-note scale we use today. Thus, he reasoned that the pattern found in Plato's writings was not merely a coincidence. Rather, it was put there deliberately.
Music is mysterious and beautiful; it is also mathematical. The Pythagoreans - followers of the philosopher-mystic-mathematician Pythagoras - believed math, and consequently music, held divine status. They literally worshiped numbers. Kennedy proposes that Plato was a closet Pythagorean, and that he wanted to convey this divine message to discerning readers by embedding a secret code in his writings.
The idea that math holds divine status is still around today. Recall the comments from Stephen Hawking, discussed in my previous post, when he said, "What could define God [is thinking of God] as the embodiment of the laws of nature" (i.e. the mathematical laws of physics). Judging from his comments, I suspect Hawking may be a modern day Pythagorean. In fact, this view seems increasingly popular among those who want to reconcile science and religion, without allowing room for belief in a personal God. Hence, Kennedy's remarks:
'Plato's philosophy shows us one way to combine science and religion,' Kennedy says. 'The culture wars we're having today — about evolution for example — see science and religion as two polarized opposites. Plato's hidden philosophy shows us that he combined an emphasis on mathematics with an emphasis upon beauty, music, art and divinity. The founder of western culture, in fact wanted us to combine science and religion.'Kennedy sounds hopeful that promoting the Pythagorean view might help calm the war between evolutionists and creationists. Given the politicized nature of the debate however, I can't see many creationists being soothed by the suggestion that God is simply a math equation. Nevertheless, Kennedy's research touches on a larger body of historical facts, which, if taken seriously, could change the way we think about the relationship between science and religion.
In the next few posts, I will share some things I've been learning in my graduate studies about the historical interaction of science and religion - i.e. how science and religion have interacted. It will surprise you. It may even change your view on how science and religion should interact.